According to some (e.g., Cartwright 1991), theterms “replication”, “reproduction” and“repetition” denote distinct concepts, while others usethese terms interchangeably (e.g., Atmanspacher & Maasen 2016a).Different disciplines can have different understandings of these termstoo. Obtaining the same results when analyzing the data set of the original study again with the same procedures, many authors use the term reproducibility in a narrow, technical sense coming from its use in computational research. A smaller proportion pointed to obstacles such as variability in reagents or the use of specialized techniques that are difficult to repeat. An astronomer measuring the spectrum of a star notes down the instruments and methodology used, and an independent researcher should be able to achieve exactly the same results, Even in biochemistry, where naturally variable living organisms are used, good research shows remarkably little variation. Recent publications have drawn attention to an apparent and concerning prevalence in the number of peer-reviewed studies that cannot be … Here, samples are prepared and compared between testing sites. Since that time the process of discovery has evolved to make use of new technologies and methods in a changing regulatory and social environment. As Shapin and Schaffer describe, “it became clear that unless the phenomenon could be produced in England with one of the two pumps available, then no one in England would accept the claims Huygens had made, or his competence in working the pump”. In 1904 he built Wardenclyffe Tower on Long Island to demonstrate means to send and receive power without connecting wires. Data processing involves the processing and review of the raw data collected in the first stage, and includes data entry, data manipulation and filtering and may done using software. Now, the reader may feel they are being asked to bl… Scientific Practice: Theories and Stories of Doing Physics. Sharing data is one step to help us to build an evidence base on which to build knowledge, but Nettleton reminds us that archiving data cannot and should not be done in response to addressing the transparency crisis. (Experimental Biology 2015) If journals seek to extend their reproducibility agenda to qualitative research, they could usefully start by encouraging process transparencywhile not mandating replicability. Reproducibility in Accounting Research: Views of the Research Community. Looking at the process from the other angle, imagine that an astronomer discovers a planet circling around a distant star. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. ", "Standard Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods", "Improving the Traditional Information Management in Natural Sciences", "The Yale Law School Round Table on Data and Core Sharing: "Reproducible Research, "Computational reproducibility in archaeological research: Basic principles and a case study of their implementation", "What does research reproducibility mean? Two major steps are naturally distinguished in connection with reproducibility of experimental or observational studies: The same solution can often be effected with many different algorithms, raising issues of biological plausibility. Reproducibility in Research Symposium Shai Silberberg (NINDS), Richard Nakamura (NIH-CSR), and Malcolm Macleod (Edinburgh University) identified issues that undermine scientific rigor and the importance of addressing them. By repeating the same experiment over and over again, Boyle argued, the certainty of fact will emerge. 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Systems that facilitate such documentation, like the R Markdown language [ 16 ] or the use of new and! Stress the importance of reproducibility and replicability appear in the article, as long as you give then the! Terms reproducibility and reproducibility in research that trilobites came later than ammonites measures of reproducibility in research, [ 25 especially.