Since the founding of New Netherland in 1615, the Dutch have been coming to America. German Immigration to America Around 1670 the first significant group of Germans came to the colonies, mostly settling in Pennsylvania and New York. Following the promise of religious tolerance in America, the Amish settled within the U.S. This pipeline transformed Spain from being a junior member of the European family to being a world power in the 16th and 17th centuries. Many of the Dutch immigrated to America to escape religious persecution. Some came as servants. Not only did the Dutch raise no eyebrow about immigrants from France, Germany, and England, but they also quietly ignored the assemblies of French Jews, English Quakers and Presbyterians, and German Lutherans in their midst. The Patroon system, a Charter of Privileges and Exemptions, was a document written by the Dutch West India Company in an effort to induce colonists to settle in New Netherland. Dutch colonization. The story of how the Dutch Reformed came to America is an unlikely one. It was not until the 19th century that Dutch began to think again about settling in America. The result of this revival was the Separation in 1834. The Amish people in America are an old religious sect, direct descendants of the Anabaptists of sixteenth-century Europe. Later he governed the Swedish colony in Delaware. Board by board, the settlers took their barns and houses down, and carted them uphill to a promontory bluff overlooking the Esopus Creek flood plain. The one thing the New Netherland colony was not was a commercial success. Where Dutch came from Before we dig into this demonym, there are three terms we need to define: Holland , the Netherlands , and Dutch . "Problems" with Native Americans were mostly over, and stable families were slowly replacing single adventurers interested only in quick profits. They reconstructed their homes behind a 14-foot high wall made of tree trunks pounded into the ground that created a perimeter of about 1200 x 1300 feet. Many fled political and religious persecution. Nevertheless, the long acquaintance of the Dutch with the sea allowed them, since they had so little to produce of their own, to turn into the great sea-borne carriers of other nations’ goods. This is a transcript from the video series The History of the United States, 2nd Edition. Wielding a vast colonial empire and maintaining maritime connections with virtually the entire world, the seven United Provinces … By day, the men left their walled village, which Director General Stuyvesant had named "Wiltwyck," to go out and farm their fields, leaving the women and children largely confined within the stockade. Along the West Coast of Africa, British charter companies clashed with the forces of the Dutch West India Company over rights to slaves, ivory, and gold in 1663. Although the Dutch were religiously committed to Reform Protestantism or Calvinism, the settlers of New Netherland were also committed to making profits. Dutch Americans (Dutch: Nederlandse Amerikanen), not to be confused with the Pennsylvania Dutch, are Americans of Dutch descent whose ancestors came from the Netherlands in the recent or distant past. He came with 12 other German families who were Quaker weavers from Krefeld. All rights reserved. Learn more about how northern settlements were motivated by ideas. They bargained their freedom for seaward passage to the New World. In 1709 a group known as the Palatines made the journey from the Palatinate region of Germany. Hiring the veteran English navigator Henry Hudson, the Dutch wanted to bypass as quickly as possible the tedium of exploration and settlement and to find as swiftly as possible the long-sought Northwest Passage to the Pacific. The most significant groups of European immigrants to the colonies of North America before the revolution came from the northern lands of Holland, Germany, and Sweden. During this earliest period, immigrants to North America included the nationals of many countries. The Dutch were willing to sell the Iroquois firearms to use on the Iroquois’ enemies, the French. A group of thirteen merchants acquired a charter from the Staten Generaal - the dutch equivalent of the US Congress - for exclusive trade on the American East Coast in what would be called "New Netherland". 10 Things the Dutch Introduced to America In 1609 when Henry Hudson sailed up the river that would eventually bear his name, he did so under the Dutch flag. Both of these families came here from Pennsylvania and had lived in the Adams County and Lancaster County areas. These young men and women were unmarried and sought to work off their debts and begin their new life in the colonies, where capitalism had made the ventures of growing sugar, tobacco and cotton promisingly profitable ventures. This unrest led conscientious believers to meet in extra-ecclesiastical “conventicles” to read the classic Reformed works as part of a movement sweeping across Protestant churches throughout Europe called the Revival. They also had to deal with the debris of a 40-year-long struggle for independence scattered all around them. B… His exploratory voyage for the Dutch East India Company identified a broad, navigable river—which today still bears Hudson’s name—which looked as though it was quite capable of crossing a continent. In the 1500s, Calvinism, one of the major … Dutch interest in the Americas began in 1602, when the Dutch government issued a charter to the Dutch East India Company to discover a new route to the Indies, as well as to exploit any unclaimed territory they came across. Colonial America Why did the English Come to America? After unsuccessful efforts at colonization, the Dutch Parliament chartered the "West India Company," a national-joint stock company that would organize and oversee all Dutch ventures in the Western Hemisphere. Meanwhile, the Spanish crown lavished its portion of the new American wealth on military adventures to prop up its commitments in other places, such as in the Netherlands, which Spain ruled, but which was now erupting in a bitterly fought revolt that lasted for decades. In 1626, Director General Peter Minuit arrived in Manhattan, charged by the West India Company with the task of administering the struggling colony. They were known for trading, particularly fur, which they obtained from the Native Americans in exchange for weapons. Others hoped to improve their condition by owning their own land or by participating in the fur trade. When the Dutch first came to America, they brought simple foods such as potatoes, cabbage, vegetable soups, fish, Indonesian rice, and holiday pastries with almond paste. In 1657, seeing the strategic practicality of a fort located halfway between New Amsterdam and Fort Orange, Director General Stuyvesant sent soldiers up from New Amsterdam to crush the Esopus Indians and help build a stockade with 40 houses for the settlers. James immediately raised a small fleet and sent it to New Amsterdam. The major parts of French exploration in America and Canada were under the rule of King Francis I in the 16th century. The Dutch uprising turned into Spain’s bleeding ulcer. Less about slaves or ivory, the Anglo-Dutch Wars were actually more about who would be the dominant European naval power. Dutch West India Company, byname of West India Company, Dutch West-Indische Compagnie, Dutch trading company, founded in 1621 mainly to carry on economic warfare against Spain and Portugal by striking at their colonies in the West Indies and South America and on the west coast of … At the same time, however, the influx of gold and silver was like too much of a good thing. By 1660, it had recruited only 5,000 settlers, and the West India Company, the commercial successor to the East India Company, had to tempt new settlement by offering to every entrepreneur who brought 50 settlers with them the title of “Patroon” and sizeable land grants along the Hudson River. Learn more about how the Spanish tapped sources of wealth in the Americas. The villagers lived this way until 1664, when a peace treaty ended the conflict with the Esopus Indians. As the supply of American wealth flowed into the Spanish system, the demand of Spaniards to buy with it drove prices all across Europe up by anywhere from 300 to 500 percent. Dutch entrance into the Atlantic World is part of the larger story of religious and imperial conflict in the early modern era. This group of thirteen decided that an island just below present-day Albany would be the ideal place to serve as a centre of trade. Director General Stuyvesant, without a fleet or any real army to defend the colony, was forced to surrender the colony to the English war fleet without a struggle. 1608 - Several Germans were among the settlers at Jamestown.. 1626 - Peter Minuit, a German, came to New Amsterdam to serve as the governor of the Dutch colony, New Netherlands. Then, in 1625, they added a base on the Atlantic coast at the southern tip of Manhattan Island, which they called New Amsterdam. America is home to approximately 4.5 million people of Dutch heritage who reside mostly in Michigan, Iowa, Illinois, Ohio, and Wisconsin. In so doing, the Dutch merchant marine not only profited from the carrying trade, but also ventured into maritime insurance, banking, and finance. By the mid-1600s, Spain had spent away much of its American gold mine and had lost the commanding influence it had enjoyed for a century in European affairs. Once you have traced your family back to a Dutch emigrant, you must find the town your ancestor came from if you wish to find earlier generations. The Dutch already had a few forts and settlements on the Essequibo River in Guyana from the … At home in Amsterdam, the Dutch tended to look on New Amsterdam as little more than a convenient supply port for Dutch ships raiding the Spanish in the Caribbean. Over time, the Dutch Catholics in the city were absorbed into other parishes and quickly became Americanized. After unsuccessful efforts at colonization, the Dutch Parliament chartered the "West India Company," a national-joint stock company that would organize and oversee all Dutch ventures in the Western Hemisphere. Learn more about a place where European ideas of society no longer applied. [8] Kalamazoo, which the Dutch muck farmers transformed into the celery capital of America, also had its unique neighborhoods. Neither the Dutch nor the French came close to the success of the Spaniards in America. The colony was proving quite profitable, New Amsterdam had developed into a port town of 1500 citizens, and the incredibly diverse population (only 50 percent were actually Dutch colonists) of the colony had grown from 2,000 in 1655 to almost 9,000 in 1664. The Patriarchs of both families were originally from Germany and immigrated to America somewhere between 1755 and 1775. © The Teaching Company, LLC. Amish first began arriving in America in the early-to-mid 1700’s, attracted by the promise of religious freedom in “Penn’s land”. The initial settlement of New Netherland was created for reasons that were very different from those that motivated the English and French. At first, the Dutch wanted to find a route to Asia through North America. The Netherlands has no nationwide index to these records. North America, especially Pennsylvania, offered them religious freedom. Minuit "purchased" Manhattan Island from Native American Indians for the now legendary price of 60 guilders, formally established New Amsterdam, and consolidated and strengthened a fort located far up the Hudson River, named Fort Orange. Sponsored by the West India Company, 30 families arrived in North America in 1624, establishing a settlement on present-day Manhattan. By 1664, both the Dutch and English were preparing for war, and King Charles of England granted his brother, James, Duke of York, vast American territories that included all of New Netherland. From the lecture series: The History of the United States, 2nd Edition. In 1609, two years after English settlers established the colony of Jamestown in Virginia, the Dutch East India Company hired English sailor Henry Hudson to find a northeast passage to India. The Dutch government encouraged emigration and sought to increase the annual U.S. immigration quota of 3,131. Big as the Hudson River was, though, it only led deeper and deeper into the interior of the incredibly vast continent of North America. Among the Germans looking for religious freedom were the Mennonites. The Dutch attempted to found their first colony during the late 1620’s, when Dutch trading interests established the colony of New Netherland, with New Amsterdam as its capital. It was so good that it ended up poisoning the Spanish economy. Inevitably, land disputes brought the two sides to the brink of war, with both the Europeans and the Esopus Indians engaging in petty vandalism and kidnaping. While many local Pennsylvania Dutch welcome and have come to rely on the tourist industry for their livelihood, giving demonstrations or selling handmade goods like furniture or food from their farms, it is important to also be respectful of their privacy.Remember that they are real people going about their daily lives. Thus, the Dutch parish did not flourish beyond the first generation. Learn more about how Dutch settlements (renamed New York) developed into a major commercial center. In the 16th and 17th centuries, Spanish conquistadors were sending great quantities of gold and silver from America back to Spain. In 1652, 60-70 settlers had moved down from Fort Orange to an area where the Rondout Creek met the Hudson River, the site of present-day Kingston. and Switzerland, they settled primarily in the southeastern section of Pennsylvania, where they practiced any of several slightly different … Born of a long struggle against Hapsburg Spain, the Dutch Republic began its independent life as the world's premier commercial nation. You may learn of your ancestor’s place of origin by talking to older family members. In many ways, the Dutch colony's early years were unlike what was experienced by other European colonies in North America. In September of 1664, New York was born, effectively ending the Netherlands' direct involvement in North America, although in places like Kingston, the influences of Dutch architecture, planning, and folklife can still be quite clearly seen. Taxes in Holland were high and wages low and emigration became popular with agricultural labourers. They cheerfully turned blind eyes to anyone of any persuasion or nationality who wished to join them in making New Netherland a commercial success. The colony grew slowly, as settlers, responding to generous land-grant and trade policies, slowly spread north up the Hudson River. The Dutch lost New Netherland to the English during the Second Anglo-Dutch War in 1664 only a few years after the establishment of Wiltwyck. Watch it now, on The Great Courses Plus. It was sold to the Dutch West India Company in 1683 and came to be known as Dutch Guiana. South America . Itinerary Home | List of Sites | Main Map | Learn More | Begin Tour. Within half a century of Dutch independence, Amsterdam had become the financial capital of Europe. Sponsored by the West India Company, 30 families arrived in North America in 1624, establishing a settlement on present-day Manhattan. This pipeline took Spain from being a junior member of the European family to being a world power in the 16th and 17th centuries. John Cabot The first Englishman to come to America was John Cabot in 1497. After unsuccessfully searching for a route above Norway, Hudson turned his ship west and sailed across the Atlantic. The colony of New Netherland was also a happier place for women. After World War II, when a war-ravaged economy and a severe housing shortage caused a third of the Dutch populace to seriously consider emigration, a new wave of 80,000 immigrants came to the United States. The Dutch Reformed Church received support from the State and dissenters suffered certain discriminations. The primary reason for Dutch immigration was not religious persecution, political ideology, or cultural change. In the 1630s and early 1640s, the Dutch Director Generals carried on a brutal series of campaigns against the area's Native Americans, largely succeeding in crushing the strength of the "River Indians," but also managing to create a bitter atmosphere of tension and suspicion between European settlers and Native Americans. At the same time, however, the influx of gold and silver was like too much of a good thing. Along the way, Dutch explorers were charged to claim any uncharted areas for the United Provinces, which led to several significant expeditions and, over time, Dutch explorers founded the province of New Netherland. Whether or not it is intentional, they usually maintain connections with their Dutch heritage, by having, for example, a Dutch surname or belonging to a Dutch community group. As in so many other cases, though, it was not the government, but a private franchisee—the Dutch East India Company—who sponsored the first Dutch foray to America. If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. He was looking for a way to get to the Indies by sailing west. Dutch Colonies in the Americas (New Netherland) AD 1614 - 1664. Unlike many other places in Europe in the 1600s, Dutch women could own property in their own names even while married, could make their own contracts, and could conduct their own businesses. Emigrating from southern Germany (Palatinate, Bavaria, Saxony, etc.) This transportation meant that other European adventurers were swift to pick off the Spanish treasure fleets at their most vulnerable, in mid-ocean. Cabot claimed most of the east coast of North America for … French explorers came to the New World, including America, to find a route to the Pacific Ocean and to establish a successful colonial empire. The first Mennonite, Jan Lensen, arrived in October 1683. Much like English colonists in Virginia, however, the Dutch settlers did not take much of an interest in agriculture, and focused on the more lucrative fur trade. Faced with the prospect of armed conflict, Twiller was forced to back down and recall the expedition, losing any claims to the Connecticut Valley. One observer in 1644 claimed that one could hear 18 different languages being spoken on the streets of New Amsterdam. It was like having five birthday cakes in a row or consuming five jar… Making his way as far as present-day Albany before the river became too shallow for his ship to continue north, Hudson returned to Europe and claimed the entire Hudson River Valley for his Dutch employers. To better understand why the Pilgrims left England to come to America, it may be helpful to briefly review the religious landscape of the time. There are several groups of Amish, which follow different rule sets pertaining to dress, technology, and family life. Several sources may reveal where your ancestor came from. A high-level overview of French and Dutch efforts at early colonization. The Old English cousin to Dutch , thiod or theod , simply meant “people or nation.” (This also helps explain why Germany is called Deutschland in German.) They were known for trading, particularly fur, approximately 4.5 million people of Dutch heritage, they found that the fur trade was very profitable, The Great Tours: England, Scotland, and Wales, how the Spanish tapped sources of wealth in the Americas, a place where European ideas of society no longer applied, how northern settlements were motivated by ideas, how Dutch settlements (renamed New York) developed into a major commercial center, The Boston Tea Party and the Beginning of the American Revolution, John Winthrop and the Settlement of New England. The First Mennonites Come to Pennsylvania. Reports from New Netherland were so favorable that it seemed worth the risk of sailing to the New World. This colony was captured by the Dutch under Abraham Crijnsen during the Second Anglo-Dutch War. Unlike the French, the Dutch allowed no supernatural considerations—no desire to convert the Indians—to stand in the way of commercial success. Many died on the way over on crowded ships, but around 2,100 survived and settled in New York. The goal in developing the colonies was to export goods such as sugar, spices, seafood and furs. Hudson hoped to discover a "northwest passage," that would allow a ship to cross the entirety of the North American continent and gain access to the Pacific Ocean, and from there, India. The history of Dutch Immigration to America and the story of the first Dutch colonists were given a boost in 1629 as officials from the Dutch West India Company established the feudal Patroon System. Once in America, though, they found that the fur trade was very profitable and soon began to form colonies. The settlers farmed the fertile flood plains of the Esopus Creek side-by-side with the Esopus Indians, the original settlers of the area. The Dutch established their first trading post, in what became the colony of New Netherland, up the Hudson River at Fort Nassau. In the 1630s, the new Director General Wouter van Twiller sent an expedition out from New Amsterdam up to the Connecticut River into lands claimed by English settlers. In the 16th and 17th centuries, Spanish conquistadors were sending great quantities of gold and silver from America back to Spain. Once out from under the thumb of Spain, the loose confederation of seven Dutch provinces, which made up the Netherlands, found itself saddled with some of the soggiest and most unproductive lands in Europe. In 1602, the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands chartered a young and eager Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie or "VOC") with the mission of exploring North America's Rivers and Bays for a direct passage through to the Indies. In the end, no matter how much gold and silver was lavished on it, the Spanish were compelled to grant the Dutch conditional independence in 1609, so the effort was all for nothing. Others decided to go for religious reasons. To legitimatize Dutch claims to New Amsterdam, Dutch governor Peter Minuit formally purchased Manhattan from the local tribe from which it … Although Wiltwyck, the second large settlement established north of New Amsterdam, grew quickly, the very successes of the Stuyvesant administration put New Netherland in danger. As an added annoyance, the gold and silver of America had to make a perilous transit across the Atlantic to get to Spain. Dutch Participation in the American RevolutionDUTCH PARTICIPATION IN THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION. In 1721, the Dutch West Indies Company stock company was founded to promote trade between Europe and North America. If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked. Other relative… Suriname ; The European colony in Suriname was founded in the 1650's by Lord Willoughby, the governor of Barbados. In the end, the Dutch abandoned their dreams of the Pacific for what turned out to be a more immediately lucrative share of the fur trade with the Iroquois, who preferred to steer the fur trade to the Dutch. After arriving off the coast of Cape Cod, Hudson eventually sailed into the mouth of a large river, today called the Hudson River. Once the Spanish yoke was off their necks, the Dutch wasted no time in plunging into expansion across the Atlantic. Tobacco growing expanded and in 1619, in need of labor, some colonists bought twenty blacks from a Dutch ship that had come to the harbor for supplies – the beginning of slavery in Anglo America. Eventually, Stuyvesant cast his eyes upon the small settlements that had developed along the Hudson River Valley between Fort Orange and New Amsterdam. The slow expansion of New Netherland, however, caused conflicts with both English colonists and Native Americans in the region. In the upper reaches of the Hudson Valley around Fort Orange, (present-day Albany) where the needs of the profitable fur trade required a careful policy of appeasement with the Iroquois Confederacy, the Dutch authorities maintained peace, but corruption and lax trading policies plagued the area. Can you clarify for me why you think the Pennsylvania Dutch did not come to Kentucky until 1950? New Netherland produced immense wealth for the Dutch, and other foreign nations began to envy the riches flowing out of the Hudson River Valley. In the lower Hudson Valley, where more colonists were setting up small farms, Native Americans came to be viewed as obstacles to European settlement. While ongoing since that time, Dutch immigration has ebbed and flowed based on economic conditions and world events. The records you will need to continue your research, such as birth, marriage, and death records, are kept in local areas. Initially, Hudson seemed just the man to do it. 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