; Gohole, L.S. ; Harju, V.A. It is caused by simultaneous infection with two viruses, maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMoV) of the Tombusviridae family and a virus from the Potyviridae group: maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Johnsongrass mosaic virus(JGMV) or oth… Intercropping creates a vegetation diversity that can divert or repel the vectors of MLN [. ; Van Der Walt, E.; Dent, K.; Varsani, A.; Rybicki, E.P. Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) negatively affects maize crops and their seeds and is threatening food and economic security in East and Central Africa. Nyameino, D., Kagira, B. and Njukia, S. (2003), Maize market Assessment and Baseline Study for Kenya, Regional Agricultural Trade expansion Support Program (RATES),Nairobi, Kenya. ; Bright, J.M. A two-part survey was conducted in Arusha, Kilimanjaro, and Manyara regions in northern Tanzania in 2015. ; Sanjuán, R. Adaptive Value of High Mutation Rates of RNA Viruses: Separating Causes from Consequences. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. SolexaQA: At-a-Glance Quality Assessment of Illumina Second-Generation Sequencing Data. RT-PCR screening for, Maize is the most important cereal crop and a staple food in sub-Saharan Africa. Genome-wide association and genomic prediction of resistance to maize lethal necrosis disease in tropical maize germplasm. The study aimed at determining the level of Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease and its effect on maize yield in Kisii County and come up with a document showing the prevalence and distribution of the disease across the nine Sub-counties in the region. Beyene, Y.; Gowda, M.; Suresh, L.M. Ajala, S.O., A.M. Nour, K. Ampong-Nyarko & M.O. Prevention. ; Writing—original draft, F.H.K. Cabanas D. Watanabe, S. Higashi C.H.V and Bressan A. (2013). Wangai, A.W., Redinbaugh, M.G., Kinyua, Z.M., Miano, D.W., Leley, P.K., Kasina, M.,Mahuku, G., Scheets, K., Jeffers, D. (2012). This guide provides information on the causes, effects, signs and symptoms of maize lethal necrosis caused by multiple viruses and offers practical advice on its management through the use of various prevention and control strategies. Nutter, R.C. Shafiq, M. and T. Rehman, 2000. Please let us know what you think of our products and services. ; Campbell, J.E. ; Beyene, Y.; Prasanna, B.M. A similar magnitude of maize yield loss was previously reported in Western Kenya, with the incidence of MCMV increasing between the years 2013 and 2014 [, Farmers reported a high incidence of MLN in irrigated farms, where continuous maize cropping is practiced throughout the year. First Report of Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus and Maize Lethal Necrosis on Maize in Ethiopia. First Report of Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus Infecting Maize in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. (2002). Domestic regulation can be put in place to prevent the movement of maize products from affected areas to disease-free regions. thesis. (2005). Our dedicated information section provides allows you to learn more about MDPI. Nkonya, E.; Xavery, P.; Akonaay, H.; Mwangi, W.; Anandajayasekeram, P.; Verkuijl, H.; Martella, D.; Moshi, A. Wangai, A.W. ; Sevgan, S.; Nyasani, J.O. Rey, M.E.C. Available online: Patel, R.K.; Jain, M. NGS QC Toolkit: A Toolkit for Quality Control of next Generation Sequencing Data. Semagn, K.; Beyene, Y.; Babu, R.; Nair, S.; Gowda, M.; Das, B.; Tarekegne, A.; Mugo, S.; Mahuku, G.; Worku, M.; et al. Recombination, Pseudorecombination and Synergism of Geminiviruses Are Determinant Keys to the Epidemic of Severe Cassava Mosaic Disease in Uganda. A new challenge for maize scientists in East Africa. Breeding for Resistance to Insect Pests. Kisii University, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources management, Department of Agricultural Education and Extension, Kisii Kenya. It continues to cause yield loss of 30–100 percent in farmers’ fields, depending on the time of infestation which is valued at $198 million in Kenya. ; Project administration, F.H.K.and F.S. Assembly of MSV sequences from samples collected in Arusha produced complete genome sequences (accessions MH667487 and MH667488). Maize lethal necrosis (MLN), a complex viral disease, emerged as a serious threat to maize production and the livelihoods of smallholders in eastern Africa since 2011, primarily due to the introduction of maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV). Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. ; Auma, E.O. Highlights Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) emerged as a serious threat to maize production and livelihoods of smallholders in eastern Africa since 2011. Please note that many of the page functionalities won't work as expected without javascript enabled. Haas, B.J. Odindo,(2010).Evaluation of maize genotypes (Zea mays L.) genotypes as a component of integrated stem borer (ChilopartellusSwinhoe) management in coastal region of Kenya. and J.N. According to Dr Ann Wangai, a Chief research scientist specialized in plant virology at KALRO, the disease first reported in Bomet in 2012, is caused by a combination of the Sugarcane Mosaic Virus and Maize Chlorotic Mortal Virus. ; Celton, J.M. Biology and Control of Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus. Influence of national accelerated agricultural inputs access programme on maize production in nyamarambe division, kisii county, Kenya, MSc. Box 447, Arusha, Tanzania. Characterization of a Novel Polerovirus Infecting Maize in China. Maize lethal necrosis disease symptoms (Photo 1a and Photo 1b) is caused by the synergistic co-infection of maize with maize chlorotic mottle virus symptoms (Photo 2) and any virus from the family Potyviridae, these include wheat streak mosaic virus, maize dwarf mosaic virus symptoms or sugarcane mosaic virus symptoms (formerly maize dwarf mosaic virus-B) (Photo 3). Since then the disease has been reported in Rwanda and DR . Steinhauer, D.A. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data that was subjected to Microsoft Excel and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software (Version 20) for analysis. Pita, J.S. SCMV is found worldwide, but this was the first report of either MCMV or maize lethal necrosis in Africa. ; Writing—Review & editing, S.M., S.S., J.N., T.F., P.A.N. Oscar, R. (2009), Crop monitoring in Kenya.Vol. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLN disease, MLND, corn lethal necrosis) is a viral disease affecting maize (corn) predominantly in East Africa, Southeast Asia and South America, which was recognised in 2010. Consequently, information regarding its prevalence, yield loss, applicable mitigation measures and socio-economic effects is still scanty, hence this study. ; Data curation, S.M. ; Wang, D. Seed Transmission of Plant Viruses: A Lesson in Biological Complexity. Majority of the respondent had secondary education as their highest level of education. Comparison search of the full-length nucleotide sequence of MSV against the NCBI database indicated that the virus is very closely related to MSV isolates from Kenya, Mozambique, and Zimbabwe (accessions FJ882094.1, FJ882100.1 and AF329882.1) sharing 99% nucleotide sequence identity. A total of 46,361,174 clean reads with an average length of 17–122 bp were produced after removing adaptor sequences and low-quality reads. ; Miano, D.W.; Leley, P.K. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ; Menge, D.; Basweti, E. Impact of Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease on Maize Yield: A Case of Kisii, Kenya. This virus ordinarily produces mild symptoms when present alone in corn; however, when a key second virus also infects the same Second, the team conducted a survey to assess farmers’ awareness and experiences on MLN including control strategies. G. Kariuki', Z.M Kinyua', M W Githendu' and M Kasina "Department ofAgricultural Science andTechnology,KenyattaUniversity,P.O.Box 43844-00100, Nairobi. Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease is a serious disease of maize caused by viruses.This disease attacks maize at all stages of growth and causes total maize loss. Corn lethal necrosis develops when two viruses occur together in the same plant. Cox, M.P. Coetzee, B.; Freeborough, M.J.; Maree, H.J. As continuous cropping can lead to a build-up and retention of the viral inoculum, there is a need to train farmers on crop rotation methods. Find support for a specific problem on the support section of our website. The statements, opinions and data contained in the journal, © 1996-2020 MDPI (Basel, Switzerland) unless otherwise stated. ". Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) emerged as a serious threat to maize production and livelihoods of smallholders in eastern Africa since 2011. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping and Molecular Breeding for Developing Stress Resilient Maize for Sub-Saharan Africa. ; Wamalwa, M.; Lucas, T.; et al. Government of Kenya, (2010). The Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND) is a result of a combination of two viruses, the Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus (MCMoV) and any of the cereal viruses in the Potyviridae group, like the Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV), Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV) or Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus (MDMV). This project researched solutions to minimize or eliminate the risks and effects of the disease in the region. Lack of Evidence for Proofreading Mechanisms Associated with an RNA Virus Polymerase. Plant Dis. ; Investigation, F.H.K. Paper presented at the FASID Forum V, “Green Revolution in Asia and its Transferability to Africa”, Tokyo, December 8-10, 2002. identification of diseases and their effects. Chávez-Calvillo, G.; Contreras-Paredes, C.A. This study contributes to a better understanding of MLN in Northern Tanzania, by providing information on disease prevalence across different AEZs in Kilimanjaro, Arusha and Manyara regions in 2015, detection of the associated viruses and indicates possible measures to manage the disease. It was first reported in Uganda in 2013. Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed. This research was funded by the Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology (COSTECH) and the Biosciences eastern and central Africa-International Livestock Research Institute (BecA-ILRI) Hub through the Africa Biosciences Challenge Fund (ABCF) Fellowship, grant number BS01 NBO SID004 SID004C2 ABC 132. Given that the observational and sampling component of the current study were limited in scope, we propose further studies to expand these aspects in order to assess the seasonal variations of the epidemics, the role of the interaction among multiple viruses on severity of MLN, how the genetic variability of SCMV affects MLN, and the role of vectors in respect to changes in the climatic factors. ; Schäffer, A.A.; Agarwala, R. Improved BLAST Searches Using Longer Words for Protein Seeding. CABI The Plantwise Blog Maize lethal necrosis disease on the decline in Kenya CIMMYT Maize Lethal Necrosis disease plant clinics Plant clinic data collected by Plantwise countries in East Africa has corroborated a statement from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) which said maize lethal necrosis disease (MLN) is “under control but not… The Extent of Resource use Inefficiencies in Cotton Production in Pakistan‟s Punjab: An Application of Data Envelopment Analysis. Tamura, K.; Stecher, G.; Peterson, D.; Filipski, A.; Kumar, S. MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 6.0. The findings indicated that the mean age of the respondents was 41.5 years and the average proportion of land allocated for maize production was 1.25 acres. Despite its importance, maize production is hindered by maize lethal necrosis (MLN), a devastating viral disease that is currently spreading at an alarming rate. International Journal of Agricultural ExtensionISSN: 2311-6110 (Online), 2311-8547 (Print)© EScience Press. Agricultural Sector Development Strategy 2010-2012, Nairobi, Kenya. Trans. ; Wanjala, B.; Jones, M.W. ; Domingo, E.; Holland, J.J. First Report of Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease in Rwanda. ; Holton, T.A. ; Redinbaugh, M.G. and F.S. ; Kimunye, J.N. Adoption of Maize Technologies in East Africa – What Happened to Africa’s Emerging Maize Revolution? Journal Scope      Author Guidelines      Editorial Team      Editorial Policy, Samson M. Makone Shepherd, D.N. Theor. ; Paximadis, M.; Berry, S.; Cossa, N.; Nuaila, V.N. Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) is a devastating viral disease of maize caused by double infection with Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and any one of the Potyviridae family members. Maize Streak Virus: An Old and Complex “emerging” Pathogen. Angew. N4, E2, and N5 are agro-ecological zones as per the Ministry of agriculture [, Help us to further improve by taking part in this short 5 minute survey, Prevalence, Pathogenicity, Virulence, Antibiotic Resistance, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Biofilm-Producing, Genetic Changes in Experimental Populations of a Hybrid in the, https://www.kilimo.go.tz/index.php/en/maps, http://www.bioinformatics.babraham.ac.uk/projects/fastqc/, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, Suleiman, R.A.; Rosentrater, K.A. Agricultural Economics, 22,321-330. ; Kinyua, Z.M. Metagenomic Analysis of Viruses Associated with Maize Lethal Necrosis in Kenya. B Biological Sci. The Complete Nucleotide Sequence of the Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus Genome. Elena, S.F. First, because of farmers’ frequent complains of maize crop loss, our research team aimed to establish whether the reported disease was MLN and whether there were other possible viruses that co-infect maize, based on symptoms and molecular diagnostics. ; Software, J.N. Genet. Adams, I.P. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. Mahuku, G.; Wangai, A.; Sadessa, K.; Teklewold, A.; Wegary, D.; Ayalneh, D.; Adams, I.; Smith, J.; Bottomley, E.; Bryce, S.; et al. Massawe, D.P. Scholthof, K.B.G. In Summary Deep Sequencing Analysis of Viruses Infecting Grapevines: Virome of a Vineyard. Top Producer, 14(4),8–13. ; Bressan, A. Dissecting the Mode of Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus Transmission (Tombusviridae: Machlomovirus) by. This disease is not new in Tanzania, as its occurrence and the causal organisms have been previously reportedin Arusha and Mwanza [, In addition to MCMV and SCMV complete sequences, NGS analysis revealed the occurrence of MSVand signatures of MYDV, MDMV, BYDV, and SrMV that have been previously reported to cause serious infections in maize [, Based on phylogenetic analysis, MCMV isolates identified in this study are highly similar to those from other east African countries (, We emphasize the importance for regional scientists to utilize farmers’ degree of awareness in identifying MLN hot spots and facilitate their capacity to collect data from a wider geographical area to enhance better understanding of the disease complex and epidemiology. * Areas connected with common letter A or B do not differ statistically and vice versa. MAIZE LETHAL NECROSIS HISTORY In September 2011, a disease outbreak in Kenya was positively identified as Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND). Wamaitha, M.J.; Nigam, D.; Maina, S.; Stomeo, F.; Wangai, A.; Njuguna, J.N. ; Eccles, D.; Li, B.; Lieber, M.; et al. Mugenda, O. Seed Inspectors can check for Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) in seed farms. J Econ Entomol 106, 16-24. The correlation between maize yields and Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease revealed a negative weak relationship of r= -0.277 at a p value of 0.000. ; Biggs, P.J. Total RNA was extracted from the samples (, Based on the results of the RT-PCR for MCMV, a subset of samples positive for MCMV from Kilimanjaro (, The quality assessment of the sequence reads generated was performed using Fastqc v0.11.2 [, Multiple sequence alignment of the viruses was performed using CLC Genomics Workbench 5.5.1 software. Mahuku, G.; Lockhart, B.E. The genomes were found to be between 4410 to 4432 nucleotides (nt) long with six open reading frames similar to other previously reported MCMV isolates [, Assembly of SCMV genome for samples from different regions of Tanzania gave sequences ranging from 9482 to 9575 nt, which were deposited into NCBI with the following accession numbers: Arusha (MF467400, MF467401, MF467404, MF467393, MF467403, MF467402, and MF467399), Manyara (MF467398, and MF467397) and Kilimanjaro (MF467394, MF467395, and MF467396). A serious new disease of maize appeared in the farmers’ fields in eastern Africa in 2011. Fox, A. Barnes, J. Smith, A. Skelton, R. Thwaites, R. Mumfordand N. Boonhama(2012). Nwilene and O.O. Effect of farming practices on wetlands of kisii district, Kenya. Taylor, M. (1997). ; Wangai, A.; Kimani, E.; Phiri, N.; Reeder, R.; Harju, V.; Glover, R.; Hany, U.; et al. Uyemoto, J.K. Mghenyi, W.E. Kimura, M. A Simple Method for Estimating Evolutionary Rates of Base Substitutions through Comparative Studies of Nucleotide Sequences. Besides crop rotation, farmers should be encouraged to practice intercropping of maize with crops that are not affected by either MCMV or SCMV. ; Bowden, J.; Couger, M.B. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) is a disease of maize caused by coinfection of maize with maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and one of several viruses from the Potyviridae, such as sugarcane mosaic virus, maize dwarf mosaic virus, Johnsongrass mosaic virus or wheat streak mosaic virus. ; Ogwal, S.; Fauquet, C.M. The ABCF Program is funded by the Australian Department for Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) through the BecA-CSIRO partnership; the Syngenta Foundation for Sustainable Agriculture (SFSA); the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF); the UK Department for International Development (DFID) and; the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida). ; Fauquet, C.M. ; Martin, D.P. ; Wright, R.J.; Wilkinson, D.R. The effects of temperature and photoperiod on length of the grain-filling period and grain yield may have been partly mediated through the size of the grain sink. ; Cassone, B.J. ; Mabasa, K.G. Maize could be replaced by other crops (e.g., legumes), as these would not only break the pathogen cycle but also increase dietary diversity. Taxonomy of Potyviruses Infecting Maize, Sorghum, and Sugarcane in Australia and the United States as Determined by Reactivities of Polyclonal Antibodies Directed towards Virus-Specific N-Termini of Coat Proteins. Molecular Criteria for Genus and Species Discrimination within the Family Potyviridae. Kisii University, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources management, Department of Agricultural Education and Extension, Kisii Kenya, Dickson Menge ; et al. (2004). Genet. ; Otim-Nape, G.W. ; Stewart, L.R. Gowda, M.; Das, B.; Makumbi, D.; Babu, R.; Semagn, K.; Mahuku, G.; Olsen, M.S. A plant health inspectorate organization can test for Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) in all seed coming into the country including the material for breeding. “Use of next-generation sequencing for the identification and characterization of Maize chlorotic mottle virus and Sugarcane mosaic virus causing maize lethal necrosis in Kenya”, Plant Pathology 1365-3059. Currently at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Heidelberg, Germany. ; Mugo, S.; Olsen, M.; Oikeh, S.O. Ochieng J, Wangai A, Miyogo S, Karanja T, Oduor H. Kimani E. Irungu J, Sikinyi E, Kinyua Z, Ngaruiya P, Ligeyo D, Kipkemboi S, (2012) “Status of maize lethal necrosis disease and general maize performance” stakeholders’ maize tour Dates: 2nd to 12th July, 2012 report: pp 1-34. The complete sequences of the virus isolates reported in this study provide additional resources for the development of diagnostic tools and for enhancing understanding of genetic relatedness of isolates of MCMV, SCMV, and MSV across Africa and their management. Maize lethal necrosis disease inherently affects all maize varieties culminating into chlorotic mottling of the leaves, severe stunting, necrosis, decreased grain yield of maize and eventually plant death (Wangai et al., 2012). Genetic Analysis of Tropical Maize Inbred Lines for Resistance to Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease. Farmers’ Perceptions and Management of Plant Viruses in Vegetables and Legumes in Tropical and Subtropical Asia. Andrews, S. Babraham Bioinformatics—FastQC A Quality Control tool for High Throughput Sequence Data. You seem to have javascript disabled. & Mugenda, A. Theor. ; Kamatenesi, J.; Asiimwe, T.; Redinbaugh, M.G. De Novo Transcript Sequence Reconstruction from RNA-Seq Using the Trinity Platform for Reference Generation and Analysis. Adams I. P, Miano D. W, Kinyua Z. M, Wangai A, Kimani E, Phiri N,Reeder R, Harju V, Glover R, Hany U, R. Souza-Richards, Deb Nath P,T. Nixon, A. All Rights Reserved. Effects of Integrating Companion Cropping and Nitrogen Application on the Performance and Infestation of Collards by. The highest MLN prevalence (complete yield loss in 88% of the surveyed farms) was observed in 2014. Mironga J.M. Khalili, M., M. R. Naghavi, A. P. Aboughadareh & H. N. Rad. Jensen, S.G.; Wysong, D.; Ball, E.; Higley, P. Seed Transmission of Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus. and J.N. [. Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLN) was first diagnosed in eastern Africa in the 2010's and is a big threat to their maize-based agri-food systems with estimated losses amounting to US$261 million in Ethiopia and US$198 million in Kenya. ; Negi, L.S. ; Juma, C.; Tarekegne, A.; Prasanna, B.M. Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus in Hawaiian-Grown Maize: Vector Relations, Host Range and Associated Viruses. The reads were assembled and compared against a plant virus database using BLASTN+ and TBLASTX and the resulting data was visualized using Krona [, Complete genome sequences of MCMV detected in the current study were deposited into NCBI with the following accession numbers: Arusha (MF467384, MF467383, MF467374, MF467389, MF467380, MF467378, MF467381, and MF467375), Manyara (MF467382, MF467379, MF467390, and MF467377) and Kilimanjaro (MF467387, MF467386, MF467388, MF467391, MF467385, MF467392, and MF467376). Effects of the maize lethal necrosis disease . Tanzania Agricultural Research Institute (TARI) Tengeru Sub Center, P.O. (2013) Dissecting the Mode of Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus Transmission (Tombusviridae: Machlomovirus) by Frankliniellawilliamsi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. ; Coffey, M.E. Contemporary issues determining the future of Kenyan agriculture: An agenda for policy and research. those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publisher and the editor(s). The descending order of the percentages of samples with MCMV across the regions are as follows: Kilimanjaro (100%), Manyara (94%) and Arusha (93%) (, A total of 48 RNA libraries from maize samples with MLN symptoms (MCMV positive using RT-PCR) collected from Arusha, Kilimanjaro, and Manyara regions of northern Tanzania were constructed and sequenced using the Illumina Miseq platform at the BecA-ILRI Hub in Nairobi, Kenya. Current Maize Production, Postharvest Losses and the Risk of Mycotoxins Contamination in Tanzania. Lukanda, M.; Owati, A.; Ogunsanya, P.; Valimunzigha, K.; Katsongo, K.; Ndemere, H.; Kumar, P.L. ; or corn Lethal Necrosis ( MLN ), Heidelberg, Germany including the South-West maize lethal necrosis disease effects. Practices on wetlands of kisii, Kenya Namikoye, E. s I ) maize lethal necrosis disease effects in. Jmp Pro v.12 ( SAS Institute Inc. 2013 ) Dissecting the Mode of Maize in... Mapping and Molecular Breeding for Developing Stress Resilient Maize for sub-Saharan Africa ) otherwise... Adaptive value of High Mutation Rates of RNA Viruses: maize lethal necrosis disease effects Causes from Consequences Nigam... Find support for a specific problem on the rt-pcr test, the maize lethal necrosis disease effects percentage samples! Of national accelerated Agricultural inputs access programme on Maize in maize lethal necrosis disease effects Wysong, D. ; Ball, impact! 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